In this article, I will describe how to construct Android app from command line, i.e. the way to build the .apk file utilizing Android instruments and command line. As a result, you should use the batch file for constructing your Android application. Binary-encoded sources and AndroidManifest.xml are decoded by the APK Analyzer. Having entry to the decoded AndroidManifest.xml is especially helpful for verifying results of the manifest merger that’s used when building multi-module purposes.
APK information are basically ZIP information much like the JAR files used to package deal Java libraries. An APK file contains app code within the DEX file format, native libraries, assets, assets, and so forth. It have to be digitally signed with a certificates to allow installation on an Android gadget. Application sources are compiled with the Android Asset Packaging Tool.
This device processes all sources right into a binary format optimized for Android use. Its output is an APK file with all resources except code — i.e. the belongings and res directories, the assets.arsc file with precompiled assets, and the application’s manifest. The compiled utility code with all of the courses.dex files produced in step 2 and the native libraries are packaged into the APK file. Android manifest incorporates essential details about the app that is utilized by the event tools, Android system, and app stores. It contains app’s package name, model information, declarations of app parts, requested permissions, and different necessary issues.
There are a number of tools that may decompile utility code into fairly clean Java code. files cat –file path apk-file Prints out the file contents.
manifest permissions apk-file Prints the list of permissions. manifest debuggable apk-file Prints whether or not the app is debuggable. Access DEX file information Description dex record apk-file Prints a list of the DEX files in the APK. dex references [–files path] [–files path2] apk-file Prints the number of methodology references in the specified DEX information.
Include the –packageoption if you want to specify the resource table bundle name, in any other case the primary defined bundle might be used. resources worth –config config –name name–type kind [–bundle package deal] apk-file Prints the value of the resource specified by config, name, and sort.
If your project includes multiple AndroidManifest.xml files (such as for product flavors) or contains libraries that additionally present a manifest file, they’re merged into a single file in your APK. This manifest file is generally a binary file throughout the APK, however when chosen in the APK Analyzer, the XML type of this entity is reconstructed and offered. This viewer allows you to perceive any changes that may have been made to your app during the build. For instance, you’ll be able to see how theAndroidManifest.xml file from a library your utility is determined by was merged into the final AndroidManifest.xml file.
Add the –information possibility to indicate specific recordsdata that you simply wish to embrace. This produces a listing with decoded sources and a decoded manifest, along with disassembled smali bytecode. The biggest advantage of utilizing Apktool is the flexibility to edit this disassembled knowledge and construct it back right into a working APK file. Here yow will discover all the knowledge related to the SUPER Android Analyzer.
Before we build Android .apk from command line, you should set up Java JDK and Android SDK on the system the place you will construct your utility. dex2jar is the suite of instruments for working with Android .dex and Java .class files. res — directory with all assets that are not compiled into sources.arsc. All XML resources are converted to binary XML, and all .png files are optimized (crunched) to avoid wasting house and enhance runtime performance when inflating these information. When an app desires to entry resources or numerous gadget capabilities, it usually has to request permissions from the consumer to do so.
SUPER is a command-line application that can be utilized in Windows, MacOS X and Linux, that analyzes .apk files in seek for vulnerabilities. It does this by decompressing APKs and making use of a series of rules to detect those vulnerabilities. Figure 3 depicts a medium-size app that’s below the 64k DEX restrict. Each bundle, class, and methodology inside the DEX file has counts listed within the Defined Methodand Referenced Methods columns. The Referenced Methods column counts all methods which are referenced by the DEX file.
- APK recordsdata are basically ZIP files similar to the JAR files used to package deal Java libraries.
- This tool processes all sources right into a binary format optimized for Android use.
- It must be digitally signed with a certificates to allow set up on an Android system.
- An APK file incorporates app code in the DEX file format, native libraries, sources, property, and so forth.
- Application resources are compiled with the Android Asset Packaging Tool.
- Its output is an APK file with all resources besides code — i.e. the assets and res directories, the assets.arsc file with precompiled sources, and the appliance’s manifest.
The sort possibility is the type of the useful resource, such as string. sources names –config config –sort kind[–package deal package] apk-file Prints a list of useful resource names for a configuration and kind.
First, this source code is compiled to Java bytecode utilizing Java/Kotlin compilers. Note that the application’s dependencies are already compiled and require no additional processing on this step.
The Defined Methods column counts solely the methods that are outlined in certainly one of your DEX information, so this quantity is a subset of Referenced Methods. Note that whenever you bundle a dependency in your APK, the strategies outlined within the dependency add to each methodology counts. Also observe that minification andcode shrinking can every also significantly change the contents of a DEX file after supply code is compiled.
There may be extra .dex files (named classes2.dex, and so forth.) when the applying uses multidex. A command-line model of the Apk Analyzer has been added in instruments/bin/apkanalyzer. It presents the identical options as the Apk Analyzer in Android Studio and could be built-in into build/CI servers and scripts for tracking dimension regressions, generating reports, and so forth. It offers detailed report not solely about installed apps but additionally about not put in Apk information from storage.
These embrace each Android dependencies shipped as AAR information and Java-solely dependencies within the form of JAR files. courses.dex — file with app code in the Dex file format.
Output is divided into specific folders based on certificates match and model of utility match. Every json incorporates simple diff of two APKs with data together with modified, added or deleted recordsdata.
manifest software-id apk-file Prints the applying ID worth. manifest version-name apk-file Prints the version name value. manifest model-code apk-file Prints the version code worth. manifest min-sdk apk-file Prints the minimum SDK model. manifest target-sdk apk-file Prints the goal SDK version.
This device permits you to analyze various particulars about Android APK files. Reference counts per packageOnce you’ve enabled MultiDex and compiled your app, you’ll notice a second classes2.dex file (and probably classes3.dex, and so forth). The process starts with the application’s supply code in Java/Kotlin, together with its dependencies.
The full AndroidManifest.xml as seen in APK AnalyzerAfter I made these modifications, I was curious to see how the new model of the app compares to the earlier one. To do this, I checked out the supply from the git commit with which I began, compiled the APK and saved it in another folder. I then used the Compare with… characteristic to see a breakdown of dimension variations between the old and new builds. Output of this task is json file for every pair of comparable APKs.
Android Studio consists of an APK Analyzer that gives immediate perception into the composition of your APK after the construct process completes. Using the APK Analyzer can cut back the time you spend debugging points with DEX files and sources within your app, and assist reduce your APK size. It’s additionally available from the command line withapkanalyzer. dex code –class class [–technique methodology] Prints the bytecode of a class or technique in smali format.
It is serialized into a binary xml format and bundled inside app’s APK file. We’ve already seen the way to examine APKs and disassemble Dex recordsdata into smali bytecode.
The class name is required and prints the totally certified class name to decompile. Add the –technique option to specify the tactic to decompile. The format for the strategy decompile is name(params)returnType, for example, someMethod(Ljava/lang/String;I)V. View assets stored in res/ and sources.arsc Description resources packages Prints an inventory of the packages which might be defined in the sources table. sources configs –sort type [–package package deal] apk-file Prints a list of configurations for the specified sort.
assets xml –file path apk-file Prints the human-readable form of a binary XML file. Include the file option to specify the path to the file. The command-line version of APK Analyzer offers instant perception into the composition of your APK after the build course of completes, and allows you to compare variations between two APKs. By utilizing APK Analyzer, you can cut back the time you spend debugging issues with DEX files and assets within your app and reduce the size of your APK.